Company Formation in Turkey

Company formation in Turkey provides a strategic advantage due to its geographic location, access to global markets, a resilient and diverse economy, and a business-friendly environment with attractive incentives.

    5 Steps Of company formation in turkey

    Step 1: Name Reservation for Company Formation in Turkey

    Step 2: Preparation of Articles of Association

    Step 3: Capital Contribution and Bank Confirmation

    Step 4: Registration with the Trade Registry

    Step 5: Tax Registration and Licensing

    Step 1: Name Reservation for Company Formation in Turkey

    The initial phase of the meticulous process of company formation in Turkey revolves around securing a distinctive and legally compliant business name through the Name Reservation procedure. This critical step serves as the cornerstone for establishing your business identity within the Turkish market.

    Procedure for Name Reservation:

    1. Strategic Name Selection: Begin by strategically choosing a business name that aligns with the vision and objectives of your company. Utilize the online platform provided by the Trade Registry to check the availability of your chosen business name, ensuring it is distinctive and complies with legal requirements.

    2. Accessing the Trade Registry System: Utilize the online platform provided by the Trade Registry, designed for the facilitation of efficient company formation in Turkey. This system enables you to check the availability of your chosen business name, ensuring that it is both distinctive and complies with legal requirements.

    3. Comprehensive Regulatory Compliance Check: Undertake a thorough regulatory check to confirm that the chosen business name aligns with Turkish regulations. Verify its uniqueness and ensure that it has not been previously registered or reserved by another entity. This meticulous review guarantees the exclusivity and legal standing of your business name.

    4. Submission of Documentation: Submit the necessary documentation, including the chosen business name and other required details, through the Trade Registry system. Providing accurate and complete information during this phase expedites the name reservation process.

    5. Await Verification and Confirmation: After submitting the necessary documentation, patiently await verification and confirmation from the Trade Registry. Address any feedback received during this process promptly to ensure a smooth transition to the subsequent steps of company formation in Turkey.

    Step 2: Preparation of Articles of Association

    Building upon the successful reservation of your business name, the second pivotal step in the process of company formation in Turkey involves the meticulous preparation of the Articles of Association. This foundational document outlines the structural, operational, and governance aspects of your business within the Turkish legal framework.

    Procedure for the Preparation of Articles of Association:

    1. Incorporation of Legal Elements: Commence the creation of the Articles of Association by incorporating essential legal elements required for operating a business in Turkey. Clearly define the structure of the company, governance mechanisms, and the roles and responsibilities of shareholders and directors.

    2. Objective Clarity: Ensure precise articulation of your company’s objectives. Clearly define the goals in a manner that aligns with the nature of your operations and industry standards. This clarity provides a comprehensive overview for regulatory compliance and strategic planning.

    3. Capital Structure and Distribution: Explicitly outline the company’s capital structure, including the amount and distribution among shareholders. Clearly define the rules for capital contributions, transfers, and any restrictions that may apply, ensuring transparency and legal adherence.

    4. Shareholder Rights and Responsibilities: Define the rights and responsibilities of shareholders, specifying voting rights, dividend distribution, and decision-making processes. This section ensures a clear understanding of the dynamics among company stakeholders, promoting transparency and smooth operations.

    5. Appointment of Directors: Clearly outline the process for the appointment, responsibilities, and powers of directors. This includes specifying the decision-making authority, terms of office, and any requisite qualifications, ensuring an organized and efficient leadership structure.

    6. Compliance with Turkish Regulations: Throughout the preparation of the Articles of Association, maintain strict adherence to Turkish regulations governing company formation. This includes compliance with legal requirements, ensuring that the document aligns with the prevailing laws and statutes in Turkey.

    7. Legal Review and Approval: Before finalizing the Articles of Association, undergo a thorough legal review to identify and rectify any inconsistencies or potential issues. Seek legal counsel to ensure the document aligns seamlessly with Turkish company law.

    8. Submission to the Trade Registry: Once the Articles of Association are meticulously prepared and legally reviewed, submit the document to the Trade Registry as part of the formal company registration process. This step marks a crucial milestone in officially establishing your company in Turkey.

    Step 3: Capital Contribution and Bank Confirmation

    Following the successful preparation of the Articles of Association, the third integral step in the process of company formation in Turkey involves capital contribution and obtaining a bank confirmation. This step is pivotal as it establishes the financial foundation of your company and fulfills a key requirement for official registration.

    Procedure for Capital Contribution and Bank Confirmation:

    1. Determine Minimum Capital Requirements: Begin by determining the minimum capital required for your chosen business structure. Different structures have varying capital requirements, and understanding this is crucial for a smooth capital contribution process.

    2. Contribution to Turkish Bank Account: Deposit the determined capital amount into a Turkish bank account in the name of the company. This step is essential for establishing financial transparency and fulfilling a prerequisite for the subsequent stages of company formation.

    3. Obtain Bank Confirmation Letter: Upon successful capital contribution, request a bank confirmation letter from the Turkish bank where the capital was deposited. This official document serves as proof of the capital deposit and is a mandatory requirement for the registration process.

    4. Submission of Bank Confirmation to Trade Registry: Submit the bank confirmation letter, along with other required documents, to the Trade Registry. This step ensures that the regulatory authorities have verified the financial commitment to your company, a key aspect of the company formation process.

    5. Ensure Compliance with Capital Regulations: Confirm that the capital contribution aligns with Turkish regulations and the specifics outlined in the Articles of Association. Compliance with these regulations is essential for the successful and legally sound establishment of your company in Turkey.

    6. Prepare for Tax Number Acquisition: As part of the subsequent steps, prepare for the acquisition of a tax number, which is typically required for official company registration. The bank confirmation letter is often a prerequisite for obtaining this tax number.

    7. Maintain Detailed Financial Records: Throughout this process, maintain meticulous records of all financial transactions related to the capital contribution. These records will be crucial for future financial reporting and compliance requirements.

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    Step 4: Registration with the Trade Registry

    With the Articles of Association prepared and the capital contribution confirmed, the fourth crucial step in the process of company formation in Turkey involves the formal registration of your company with the Trade Registry. This step marks the official recognition of your business entity within the legal framework of Turkey.

    Procedure for Registration with the Trade Registry:

    1. Compilation of Required Documents: Gather all the necessary documents, including the Articles of Association, bank confirmation letter, and personal identification documents of shareholders and directors. Ensure that all documents are accurate, complete, and comply with Turkish regulations.

    2. Obtain Tax Identification Number: Acquire a tax identification number for your company. This is a prerequisite for the registration process and involves applying to the relevant tax authorities, often requiring the submission of the bank confirmation letter.

    3. Visit the Trade Registry Office: Schedule a visit to the local Trade Registry Office, where your business is intended to operate. Present the required documents and provide any additional information requested by the Trade Registry officials.

    4. Completion of Registration Forms: Fill out the necessary registration forms provided by the Trade Registry Office. These forms typically include details about the company’s structure, shareholders, directors, and other pertinent information.

    5. Payment of Registration Fees: Pay the applicable registration fees as specified by the Trade Registry Office. The fee structure may vary based on factors such as the type of business entity and the capital invested.

    6. Verification and Approval: The Trade Registry officials will review the submitted documents, forms, and fees. Upon successful verification, they will approve the registration, providing an official acknowledgment of your company’s legal existence in Turkey.

    7. Receipt of Registration Certificate: Following approval, you will receive a registration certificate from the Trade Registry. This document serves as conclusive evidence of your company’s legal status and is often required for various business transactions and interactions.

    8. Publication in the Trade Registry Gazette: Some regions may require the publication of your company’s information in the Trade Registry Gazette. This step aims to inform the public and other businesses about the establishment of your company.

    9. Official Commencement of Business: With the registration certificate in hand, your company is officially recognized and can commence its business activities in Turkey. This includes engaging in contracts, hiring employees, and participating in various business transactions.

    Step 5: Tax Registration and Licensing

    After successfully completing the registration with the Trade Registry, the fifth crucial step in the process of company formation in Turkey is tax registration and acquiring the necessary licenses. This step is vital for ensuring compliance with taxation regulations and establishing the legal framework for your business operations.

    Procedure for Tax Registration and Licensing:

    1. Tax Office Visit: Initiate the process by scheduling a visit to the local tax office corresponding to the location of your business. This is where you will begin the tax registration process for your newly formed company in Turkey.

    2. Submission of Required Documents: Present the required documents, including the company’s registration certificate, Articles of Association, and identification documents of shareholders and directors. Ensure that all documentation aligns with the information submitted to the Trade Registry.

    3. Application for Tax Identification Number (TIN): Apply for a Tax Identification Number (TIN) for your company. This unique identifier is essential for conducting financial transactions, filing tax returns, and complying with various legal requirements.

    4. VAT Registration (if applicable): Depending on your business activities and turnover, you may need to register for Value Added Tax (VAT). Confirm the applicability of VAT registration for your business and complete the necessary procedures if required.

    5. Obtain Special Licenses (if applicable): Depending on your industry, certain business activities may require special licenses or permits. Identify the specific licenses relevant to your operations and initiate the application process.

    6. Comprehensive Tax Planning: Engage in comprehensive tax planning to understand the applicable tax rates, deadlines, and reporting requirements. This proactive approach ensures that your company remains in full compliance with Turkish tax regulations.

    7. Employee Social Security Registration: If your company plans to hire employees, ensure their social security registration. Comply with the necessary requirements for employee contributions and benefits as mandated by Turkish labor laws.

    8. Regular Compliance Audits: Establish a system for regular compliance audits to ensure that your company adheres to all tax regulations and licensing requirements. This ongoing process mitigates the risk of penalties and legal complications.

    9. Consultation with Tax Professionals: Consider seeking guidance from tax professionals or legal experts specializing in Turkish tax laws. Their expertise can prove invaluable in navigating the complexities of tax registration and compliance.

    10. Continuous Monitoring of Regulatory Changes: Stay informed about any changes or updates to tax laws and licensing regulations in Turkey. Regularly monitor announcements from relevant authorities to ensure your company remains up-to-date and compliant.


    The process involves several key steps, starting with the reservation of a business name, preparation of Articles of Association, capital contribution, registration with the Trade Registry, and subsequent tax registration. Each step is crucial for creating a legal business entity in Turkey.

    Turkey offers various business structures, including limited liability companies (LLCs), joint-stock companies, and branch offices. The choice depends on factors such as the nature of the business, capital requirements, and liability considerations.

    No, there is no strict requirement for a local director or shareholder. Foreign nationals can serve as directors and shareholders in Turkish companies. However, having a local representative can facilitate smoother operations.

    The minimum capital requirement varies depending on the chosen business structure. Limited liability companies (LLCs) have specific capital requirements, while joint-stock companies may have different criteria. It is essential to verify the specific requirements based on the selected structure.

    The timeframe can vary based on factors such as the complexity of the business structure and the efficiency of document preparation. On average, the process can take several weeks to a few months. Engaging professional services can expedite the process.

    Yes, certain industries, such as finance, healthcare, and telecommunications, may require special licenses or permits. It’s crucial to identify the specific licensing requirements relevant to your industry during the company formation process.

    Newly formed companies need to register for tax identification numbers and comply with Turkish tax regulations. Understanding corporate tax rates, VAT requirements, and employee social security contributions is essential for tax planning and compliance.

    Yes, foreign nationals can open a bank account for their Turkish company. The process typically involves presenting the necessary company documents, including the registration certificate and Articles of Association, to the chosen Turkish bank.

    Yes, it is possible to change the business name after formation. However, the process involves certain administrative steps, including obtaining approval from the Trade Registry. It’s advisable to choose a name carefully during the initial stages to minimize changes later.

    Ongoing compliance requirements include annual financial reporting, tax filings, and adherence to any industry-specific regulations. Regularly monitoring changes in Turkish laws and regulations is crucial to staying compliant and avoiding legal complications.

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